For the final assembly of MID after substrate manufacturing, several further steps are usually necessary. After preparing the MID by applying conductive adhesives or solder paste, components are placed. The geometric complexity usually requires machines with improved and more flexible cinematic concepts. Possible system solutions include additional rotational axes in the work piece handling or the use of flexible tools.
Placement is followed by establishing the connections between components and substrate. To enable classical soldering methods high temperature consistant thermoplastics are necessary. Other plastics can be processed by using low melting point solders, conductive adhesives or selective soldering methods. Research in this area concentrates on material evaluation, characterisation of joints, various heating methods and reliability assessments.